Propsilocerus Kieffer

Description

Introduction

Medium sized to large larvae, up to 17 mm long, red coloured.

Antenna

Antenna 1/2 to 2/3 length of mandible, with 4 segments; segments consecutively smaller, or 3 and 4 subequal. Ring organ on basal 1/4 of segment 1. Blade extending about level of segment 3, always shorter than flagellum. Lauterborn organs vestigial less than 1/2 the length of segment 3. Style about twice as long as a Lauterborn organ.

Labrum

Labrum with SI plumose, SII and SIII simple, strong, fused. SIV normal, simple. Labral lamella consisting of a rectangular lobe abutting sockets of SI, with strongly sclerotized posterior margin, joined along median suture. Chaetae few (5) weak, serrate; spinulae simple or weakly notched apically. Pecten epipharyngis consisting of 3 elongate scales with rounded or pointed apices. Chaetulae laterales simple to serrate; chaetulae basales present. Ungula U-shaped; basal sclerite absent. Premandible narrow or broad, bifid; brush absent.

Mandible

Mandible with apical tooth subequal to combined length of 4 inner teeth. Seta subdentalis short, pointed. Seta interna with 5 branches; 4 anterior branches serrate; posterior branch subdivided into 5-6 long narrow branches.

Mentum

Mentum with 4 light coloured median teeth in continuous contact with ventromentum, median pair with irregular margin and may appear multi-toothed; 6-10 pairs of lateral teeth; median and first lateral teeth lighter in color than remaining lateral teeth. Ventromental plate conspicuous, narrow or broad, elongate, continuous with median mental teeth; beard absent. Setae submenti arising close to mentum.

Maxilla

Maxilla with palpiger with leaf-like chaetulae. Galea apparently without lamellae or pecten galearis. Setae maxillaris simple.

Body

Body with anterior and posterior parapods separate, each bearing apical crown of claws. Procercus longer than wide, pointed or with posteriorly directed apical hook; with 5-7 anal setae. Anal tubules short to subequal to posterior parapods. Body setae simple.

Notes

Taxonomic Notes

Diagnosis after Sæther and Wang (1996).

Ecological Notes

Larvae of Propsilocerus, including those once called Tokunagayusurika, are unusual in posessing haemoglobin, as do many Chironominae. The larvae live in shallow to moderate depths in the benthos of meso- to eutrophic lakes, ponds, and even brackish waters.

The genus is Palaearctic with some extension into the oriental region in China.

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