Lipiniella Shilova



Large-sized larvae, to 11 mm long, light red.

Dorsal Head

Frontal apotome very broad, posteriorly rounded with fine point; anterior margin granular. Labrum present, with SI on it, SII adjacent, labral sclerites 3 and 4 fragmentary


Antenna with 5 segments. Ring organ in middle 1/3 of 1st antennal segment. Seta absent. Lauterborn organs as large as 3rd antennal segment, opposite, with small style. Antennal blade short, only reaching apex of segment 3, accessory blade very short. Antennal pedestal on inner side with darkly sclerotised, broad tubercle,.


SI seta coarsely plumose on both side, SII simple, SIII fine, simple, SIVa simple sensillum. Labral lamellae normal. Pecten epipharyngis long, apparently simple but actually finely divided into 3 parts, each with distal margin equipped with large and small teeth, without surface teeth. Premandible with 5 teeth, strong brush; seta premandibularis simple.


Mandible with pale dorsal tooth, apical tooth and 3 inner teeth. Seta subdentalis short, simple. Seta interna of 4 plumose branches. Pecten mandibularis comprising 10-15 long setae.


Mentum with median tooth comprising 4 small, subequal toothlets, with 6 pair of laterals, regularly decreasing in size. Ventromental plates contiguous medially, very narrow and 2x as wide as mentum, gently curved with fine continuous striae and dark longitudinal band becoming more slender laterally. Setae submenti simple.


Lateral tubules absent, ventral tubules present only as pair of anal humps, sometimes perhaps with a pair of longer, ventral tubules. .Anal tubules a little shorter than posterior parapods.


Taxonomic Notes

Lipiniella and Axarus larvae are recognizable by the long, slender and medially contiguous ventromental plates. In contrast to that of Axarus, the mandible of Lipiniella has a dorsal tooth, only 3 normal inner teeth and a simple seta subdentalis. In addition the antennal pedestal bears a dark tubercle and labral sclerite 1 is absent. Lipiniella and Axarus larvae are very similar in some respects. Xenochironomus (Anceus) ? scopula (Roback 1963a) and Xenochironomus sp. l (Oliver et al., 1978a) belong in Lipiniella.

Ecological Notes

Larvae of Lipiniella occur in sandy sediments in the littoral (0-5 m) of reservoirs and in lentic habitats in rivers. Also found in brackish waters.

The genus is Holarctic in distribution with records from western Soviet Union (Shilova 1976a, Kalugina 1970a), Netherlands (unpublished), Canada (N. W. Territories, Yukon Territory and Quebec); at present only larval records, except for those from the Soviet Union.

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